The branch of science that examines diseases related to the heart and circulatory system is called cardiology. Cardiology, which was previously a sub-branch of the internal medicine department, is now a separate one. After completing their medical education, a physician can become a cardiologist by specializing in cardiology. It is the field of science related to the diagnosis (eg angiography) and medical treatment (eg balloon angioplasty and stent applications) of cardiovascular diseases (eg hypertension, infarction, stroke, etc.), which are the first cause of death in modern societies.
Interventional cardiology and cardiac electrophysiology are among the sub-branches formed in cardiology. Diseases that cardiology studies to provide diagnosis and treatment include atherosclerotic heart diseases such as hypertension, coronary vascular disease, heart rhythm disorders (arrhythmias), congenital heart diseases and heart valve diseases. Diagnostic tools and methods used by cardiology include electrocardiography (ECG), “Holter” monitor (periodic blood pressure measurement throughout the day), exertional ECG (heart stress test) echography, level of heart enzymes in the blood (eg troponin) and coronary angiography. All patients in coronary intensive care units are attached to a central monitor that records their heart rhythms, blood pressure, pulse rates, and blood oxygen levels. These monitors notify the responsible staff when there is an abnormality in the measured values.